Deforestation is decrease of forest cover of an area. World deforestation speech conclusion cover of 7000 million hactares has been reduced 2400 million hectares in 2000. By the end of the century, it shrunk to 19.
Slash and burn agriculture is commonly called as Jhum cultivation. In this process the farmers cut down the trees of the forest and burn them. The ash is used as a fertilizer and the land is then used for farming. After cultivation, the area is left for several years so as to allow its recovery. The farmers then move to other areas and repeat this process. Technically it is called as shifting cultivation.
Man made dams, reservoirs and hydroelectic projects submerge forest areas, killing all plants and animals. Huge forest fires in dry seasons destroy large patches of forests. There is an increasing demand for agricultural land in order to grow more food crops for feeding the growing human population which is done through clearing forest areas. Forest land is also used for building more residential complexes and industrial townships. Construction of roads and railway tracks in hilly forested areas results in lot of deforestation, landslides and soil erosion. Canals constructed for irrigation under irrigation projects destroy lot of forest areas and cultivated land. The population of livestock in India is about 500 million but grazing area is only 13 million hectares.
One hectare of land supports only 6 livestock. The remaining naturally graze in forests causing destruction of seedlings and causing compaction of soil. The latter reduces water holding capacity and increases run off. Ultimately huge forest area is destroyed. Requirement of wood is rising for fuel, house construction and paper industry leading to loss of several million hectares of forest area.
Increase in carbon dioxide concentration in atmosphere. Deforestation results in reduced rainfall, increased draught, hotter summer and colder winter. Soil is exposed to insolation, dries up and gets eroded by wind and water. Timber and fuel wood availability has been drastically reduced. Forest products like resin tannin, gums, latex, lac may not be available. Loss of forest leads to soil erosion and finally desertification occurs which is of no use Moist and fertile land of forests will be converted to deserts due to decrease amount of rainfall and no floods.
Deforestation would result in loss of biodiversity and germplasm having devastating effect in ecological balance. It is decrease or removal of forest cover. Deforested land can be used variously as crop land, industrial area, residential area etc. It is conversion of moist and fertile land into arid desert area. Temperature is either high or low. Desertification is a product of soil erosion.